CLEAN Network Teleconferences
To participate in these teleconferences, you need to be a member of the CLEAN Network. To join the Network, sign up here Join CLEAN Network.
Members receive an email alert from the CLEAN Network listserv with information about each week's teleconference.
American Geophysical Union (AGU) Climate Literacy Sessions - Consider submitting an abstract - Deadline August 5, 2015. The list of climate literacy sessions and like to abstract submission along with additional information about the AGU Fall Meeting (San Francisco, Dec 14-18, 2015) is here
Geological Society of America (GSA) Climate Literacy Session - Consider submitting an abstract - Deadline August 11, 2015. Meeting in Baltimore Maryland November 1-4, 2015, T68. Climate Literacy: Formal and Informal Education and Outreach Activities and Research and Evaluation Measures of Success. Submit Abstracts Here
The session will focus on both activities (formal education, informal education, outreach activities, and partnerships beyond the sciences) and research (education, social, and cognitive) that can extend the reach and effectiveness of climate literacy efforts.
Upcoming 2015 TeleconferencesRecent Telecons | Past Telecons
August 4, 2015: David Herring (Director of Communications & Education, NOAA Climate Program Office)
Topic: The Climate Challenge game (http://www.ecoresearch.net/climate-challenge/) - a social media crowd-sourcing game with a purpose
For more information, see here.
August 11, 2015: Informal discussion
August 18, 2015: Informal discussion
August 25, 2015: Informal discussion
September 1, 2015: Informal discussion
September 8, 2015: Juliette Rooney-Varga, Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell Climate - engaging a broader community of users
September 1, 2015: Informal discussion
September 15, 2015: Informal discussion
September 22, 2015: Informal discussion
September 29, 2015: Informal discussion
October 6, 2015: Informal discussion
October 13, 2015: Informal discussion / CLEAN at NAAEE October 15-18
October 20, 2015: Informal discussion
October 27, 2015: Informal discussion
November 3, 2015: Informal discussion / CLEAN at GSA November 1-4
November 10, 2015: Informal discussion
November 17, 2015: Informal discussion
November 24, 2015: Informal discussion
December 1, 2015: Informal discussion
December 8, 2015: Informal discussion
December 15, 2015: Informal discussion / CLEAN at AGU Dec. 14-18
December 22, 2015: Informal discussion
December 29, 2015: Informal discussion
Recent 2015 Teleconferences
July 28, 2015: Informal discussion - no recording made
July 21, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call will be here shortly.
July 14, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is here (MP3 Audio 10.1MB Jul15 15).
July 7, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is here (MP3 Audio 12.5MB Jul8 15).
June 30, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is here (MP3 Audio 6.2MB Jul6 15).
June 23, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is here (MP3 Audio 5.9MB Jun24 15).
June 16, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is here (MP3 Audio 7.9MB Jun24 15).
June 9, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 22.1MB Jun11 15).
June 2, 2015: Rachael Shwom, Assistant Professor, Department of Human Ecology, Climate & Society, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University
Coauthors: Cindy Isenhour, University of Maine; Rebecca C. Jordan, Rutgers University; Aaron M. McCright, Michigan State University; Jennifer Meta Robinson, Indiana University
Title: Enhancing Climate Literacy through the Social Sciences
Abstract: Coordinated efforts to improve climate literacy have been underway for over two decades, culminating in the publication of Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (1). Developed through a collaborative process involving a number of US government and science agencies, non-governmental organizations, and individual scientists and educators, this guide outlines a consensus on what climate literacy is and why it is important. As the guide notes, climate-literate individuals should be able to: (a) understand the basic principles of Earth's climate system, (b) assess scientifically credible information about the climate, (c) meaningfully communicate about climate and climate change (CC), and (d) make informed and responsible decisions about CC. Achieving these competencies requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates social science knowledge with biophysical science knowledge. To facilitate such integration, this review identifies important social science knowledge that is vital for cultivating climate literacy.
Recent years have seen continued calls for greater participation by social scientists in climate science and (formal and informal) climate education (2). At the same time, social scientists have amassed substantial bodies of CC-relevant knowledge. Indeed, several social science disciplines—psychology (3), anthropology (4), and sociology (5) —recently have summarized the state of their respective disciplinary knowledge about CC. Thus, the social sciences are ready to engage with climate literacy.
This review offers a framework for conveying the social science dimensions of climate literacy. We first identify the most robust social science knowledge relevant to the current climate literacy principles mentioned above. We then describe key social science contributions to our understanding of CC decision-making that are not clearly located within the current climate literacy principles. Finally, we identify areas where climate social science theoretical development and empirical research need strengthening to further advance climate literacy.
1. NOAA. 2009. Climate literacy: The essential principles of climate sciences. NOAA Guide: 14 www.climatescience.gov/Library/Literacy/.
2. Victor DG. 2015. Climate change: Embed the social sciences in climate policy. Nature 520: 27–29.
3. Swim J, et al. 2009. Psychology and global climate change: Addressing a multi-faceted phenomenon and set of challenges. A report by the American Psychological Association's task force on the interface between psychology and global climate change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
4. Fiske SJ, Crate SA, Crumley CL, Galvin K, Lazrus H, Lucero L, Oliver-Smith A, Orlove B, Strauss S, Wilk R. 2014. Changing the Atmosphere. Anthropology and Climate Change. Final report of the AAA Global Climate Change Task Force: 137. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association.
5. Dunlap R and Brulle R. Forthcoming 2015. The Sociology of Climate Change. Washington, DC: The American Sociological Association's Task Force on Climate Change.
Bio: Rachael Shwom is a sociologist who is interested how different groups of people in society make sense of and respond to energy and climate change problems. She understands these processes as not just technological or economic processes, but inherently social and political processes. She is particularly focused on the role of civil society, such as environmental groups and the public in general and their role in perceiving and acting to remedy climate change. She has studied public opinion on climate change, non-profits decisions to partner with business to address energy issues, household energy consumption, long term risk governance, and risk communication. She uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to study these issues including surveys, social network analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Her work is strongly interdisciplinary. She teaches undergraduate courses in Energy and Society, Innovative Solutions to Environmental Problems, an interdisciplinary class on Energy and Climate Change, and Environmental Politics. She also teaches graduate courses in Human Dimensions of Environmental Change, Organizations in the Environmental Movement, and Long Term Risk Assessment and Governance.
The slides for the presentation are here (PowerPoint 2007 (.pptx) 619kB Jun2 15).
The recording of the presentation is here (MP3 Audio 21.5MB Jun2 15)
May 26, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 20MB May26 15).
May 19, 2015: Randy Russell, Game & Interactive Multimedia Developer UCAR Center for Science Education, Boulder, CO
Title: Simulations and Games for Climate Education
Bio: Randy Russell develops educational resources and leads teacher professional development opportunities at the UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research) Center for Science Education (SciEd.ucar.edu), which is housed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), a major climate & atmospheric science research lab in Boulder, Colorado. His main passion is the development and use of educational simulations and games for Earth science education. He has been at UCAR/NCAR for 12 years; previously he helped faculty at Michigan State develop online courses in STEM disciplines, briefly worked as a telecommuter for TERC, and for a short while drove satellites at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. He started off in science and engineering with a decidedly spacey theme (B.S. astrophysics, Michigan State; M.S. aerospace engineering), then grew interested in STEM education and got his doctorate in education from Michigan State.
Abstract: I create educational simulations and games myself, and also like to check out what cool things other groups are doing along those lines. I'll provide something akin to a visual literature review of some of the simulations and games that are relevant to climate and energy education. Some of the items I'll show were developed by our group at UCAR, but most come from a variety of sources such as NASA, universities, the BBC, the Concord Consortium, and others. I'll provide a quick overview of several items that address climate issues such as the greenhouse effect, tree rings and paleoclimates, climate modeling, melting glaciers, and more... as well as where to find them online. I'll follow with quick "teaser" demonstrations of as many items as I can get to in the allotted time. I've collected links to numerous games and sims for climate and related topics onto a web site, which I'll share. All items referenced during the webinar can be accessed via the following web page - scied.ucar.edu/events/clean-webinar-may-2015
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 19.8MB May19 15).
The associated live demo using WebEx video streaming is available here.
May 12, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 5.5MB May12 15).
May 5, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 11.7MB May6 15).
April 28, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 19.5MB May4 15).
April 21, 2015: Brief Update on AGU Climate Literacy sessions and then informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 7.9MB Apr21 15).
April 14, 2015: Informal discussion
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 20.8MB Apr14 15).
April 7, 2015: Johanna Bozuwa, Associate Director of Education, Earth Day Network
Topic: Climate Education Week
Abstract: Earth Day Network presents Climate Education week, April 18-25th. Climate Education Week will provide standards-based, state-of-the-art climate education to over 100,000 K-12 schools across the United States under the banner of our 2015 Earth Day theme, "It's Our Turn to Lead." To carry out Climate Education Week, EDN is developing an online toolkit that provides teachers with everything they will need to deliver lessons and activities related to climate science. It will include lesson plans for specific grade levels that meet both NGSS and CCS. The toolkit will be cross disciplinary, with activities ranging from scientific investigations of renewable energy to a lesson plan simulating policy recommendations to the UN. Earth Day service learning projects will also be provided to inspire educators and their students to take action on April 22nd. The web site with the Climate Education Week activities is here
Bio: Johanna assists in international outreach for Earth Day campaigns, organizing events all over the world. She works closely with the Green Schools Program, conducting research on the benefits of environmental education and green schools for students, communities and the environment. Johanna has worked in both environmental advocacy and education, including editing environmentally focused educational children's books at Nomad Press. Johanna earned her degree in Environmental Policy from Barnard College, where she was also an Athena for Leadership Studies Scholar.
The slides for this presentation are here (Acrobat (PDF) 2.4MB Apr7 15).
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 11.5MB Apr7 15).
March 31, 2015: Kristen Poppleton, Director of Education and Jothsna Harris, Education Coordinator, Will Steger Foundation
Title: Climate Minnesota: Local Stories, Community Solutions. A Statewide Public Engagement Project. (www.climateminnesota.org)
The Will Steger Foundation(www.willstegerfoundation.org) has launched Climate Minnesota: Local Stories, Community Solutions, a two-year project funded through the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund. Climate Minnesota responds to the urgent need to increase climate literacy and promote sustainable behavior change among Minnesotans by sharing the knowledge of local experts and the stories of individuals impacted by climate change. The project builds on the power of media for sharing stories and the importance of personal contact to reach a broader, more diverse audience.
The project's components include:
1) Convenings: Throughout 2015 and into 2016, we will hold a series of 12 public convenings across the state that will connect communities through local science, stories, and solutions that encompass the broad range of impacts that Minnesotans are seeing now. In addition we will hold two to four educator workshops that highlight local resources and build capacity.
2) Climate action teams: Each convening will culminate in the establishment and ongoing support of peer groups in all of the 12 communities. These groups will focus on sharing their "climate stories" and implementing community projects that advance climate change solutions.
3) Storytelling Collection: We're inviting Minnesotans across the state to share their stories of how climate change has impacted their lives, either in blog or podcast form. We will present these stories online and encourage them to be shared statewide as educational resources and as inspiration for climate action.
4) Television production: Twin Cities Public Television (TPT) is creating a TV production and video segments that examine the different ways that climate change is affecting Minnesotans in various settings.
Kristen Poppleton has spent the last five years developing and directing the Will Steger Foundation's climate change education program. Her work includes collaborating locally and nationally on climate and STEM education initiatives, creating original materials and training, strategic planning with the organization's board and staff to develop a clear educational philosophy, and seeking funding through partners and writing grants. In addition to her work with WSF Kristen is currently working as a Next Generation Science Standards curator assisting the National Science Teacher's Association identify educational resources that support the new standards.
Jothsna Harris is the Will Steger Foundation's Education Coordinator and is currently coordinating the series of public statewide Climate Minnesota Convenings. Prior to the Will Steger Foundation, Jothsna served as a 2013-14 MN GreenCorps Energy Conservation Member in the Burnsville Independent School District (ISD) 191, where she coordinated a multi-pronged energy conservation campaign, designed to engage students, staff and community members and to inspire behavioral changes. In addition to her current role at the Will Steger Foundation, Jothsna serves on the Executive Board for the Minnesota Green Schools Coalition through the USGBC MN Chapter and is working on a Master of Liberal Studies degree in Innovation and Sustainability at the University of Minnesota.
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 25MB Apr1 15).
March 24, 2015: Minda Berbeco, Programs & Policy Director; Mark McCaffrey, climate literacy consultant; National Center for Science Education
Title: NCSE: Combating Science Denial on the Homefront and Beyond
Since launching our climate change initiative in 2012, Mark McCaffrey has been integral in NCSE's efforts to combat anti-science legislation, support educators, engage in professional development, and advise on curriculum development. Mark markedly raised NCSE's visibility with like-minded organizations and federal agencies–including an invite to participate in the White House's National Climate Assessment conference last year.
Thanks to our greater visibility, NCSE can work with educators, school districts, and state boards of education that encountering resistance to teaching climate change. But what's this mean and how do we actually help educators? In this webinar, we'll talk about the past 3 years of NCSE's work with climate change education, our plans for the future, and Mark's next steps in developing an international CLEAN.
Article 6 of the United National Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) signed by vitually all nations in 1992: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1366.php
The Ministerial Declaration from COP20 making the case for Article 6:http://www.uncclearn.org/news/cop20-ministerial-declaration
Here's the nations that have identified Article 6 focal points:http://unfccc.int/cc_inet/cc_inet/focal_points/items/6833.php
Here's UNITAR's Guidance Note for Developing a National Climate Change Learning Strategy: http://www.unitar.org/how-develop-climate-change-learning-strategy
Climate KIC (Knowledge Innovation Community: http://www.climate-kic.org/
Climate KIC Learning Portal: http://www.learning.climate-kic.org/
Minda Berbeco came to NCSE from UC Davis, where she was a post-doctoral scholar conducting research studies on climate change and agriculture. An expert on the carbon cycle and climate change, she has taught, written, and presented talks on the effects of climate change on forests and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Berbeco brings to NCSE a knowledge of climate change policy, greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation in agriculture and forests, and related topics.
As Programs and Policy Director at the National Center for Science Education (NCSE), Mark S. McCaffrey helped spearhead the NCSE Climate Change Education initiative and convene the Climate and Energy Literacy Summit. He served as Associate Scientist with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder from 2001 to 2011. During that time he helped lead the development of the NOAA Paleo Perspective on Abrupt Climate Change, the Climate TimeLIne Information Tool, and played a catalytic role in initiating and deploying the Climate Literacy and Energy Literacy frameworks. He was a Co-Principal Investigator of the Climate Literacy & Energy Literacy Network (CLEAN), and member of the International Polar Year Education, Outreach and Communications Committee. He holds a graduate degree in education from the University of Northern Colorado where he focused on water as an interdisciplinary and integrating theme for teaching. McCaffrey helped establish an education affilnity group with the National Climate Assessment Network, which is a public private partnership organized under the auspices of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. (see http://www.markmccaffrey.com/marked-climate-consulting.html)
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 19.6MB Mar24 15).
March 17, 2015: Brief Overview of Energy Literacy Video Series, Erin Twamley, Department of Energy
At the nexus of climate change is energy. From weather patterns and food chains, to human society's daily electricity and heating needs, to the toys kids use, energy is everywhere. Understanding energy and its role in our lives can help us make better informed decisions about our homes, communities, and our world. Incorporating energy into your classroom or program is crucial whether you are a science, math or even a social studies teacher.
To help bring energy to you and your students, check out the new Energy Literacy Video series and the Energy Literacy Quick Start Guide aligned to Common Core Standards and the Next Generation of Science Standards. The video series and accompanied lessons are also aligned with the Department of Energy's (DOE), Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education framework. The videos help to engage students on the 7 Principles of energy outlined in the Framework.
The Quick Start Guide and sample Social Studies lessons help teachers connect energy to political and economic factors, policy decisions and quality of life. The video series is also available in Spanish and are found on YouTube.
The new Energy Literacy Video series and guides are a collaborative project with DOE, American Geosciences Institute, and the National Center for Science Education.
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 11.5MB Mar18 15).
March 10, 2015: AGU Climate Literacy session proposal discussion
It is time to identify the climate literacy sessions we would like to have at the Fall AGU meeting (San Francisco, Dec 14-18, 2015) and the convenors who will organize those sessions. Please join the discussion. If you can't call in please let me know both your ideas for sessions and your interest in organizing a session. - Tamara Ledley
The link to the Google doc where we will be listing session proposal ideas and identifying convenors is here
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 19.5MB Mar16 15).
March 3, 2015: Brian Drayton (Co-Director, Center for School Reform, TERC) and Gilly Puttick (Senior Scientist, TERC)
Title: Place, community, and biosphere: An overview of the TERC LIfe Science Initiative's climate education work
Abstract: Climate change education is one of the strands of work in the Life Sciences Initiative of the Center for School Reform at TERC. Beginning in the late 1980s, an early initiative included The Global Lab, the first curriculum available nationally that introduced probes and computers in the classroom. Another early product was the Ecology curriculum, with a hands-on unit on carbon cycling and climate change, presented from an ecological perspective.
Since that time, our work has evolved through successive phases of development, beginning with presentation of concepts related to climate change informed by the learning sciences, through increasing understanding of the importance of place and identity, to an emphasis on place-identity and an understanding of community involvement.
In this talk, we will describe this evolution, using examples drawn from programs and products we have developed. We will elaborate how theoretical frameworks drawn from conservation psychology and theories of behavior change have come to play a prominent role in how we think about engaging learners with the complexity of climate change.
Gilly Puttick's Bio: Gilly Puttick is currently a co-leader of the Life Sciences Initiative at TERC. Since 1991, Puttick has conducted research on science teaching and learning, developed life science curricula for elementary, middle and high school, and designed professional development programs for middle and high school science teachers. Her recent work has focused on climate change education, with the development of curricula and programs for formal and informal educational settings. Research and development projects include: Biocomplexity and the habitable planet, Girls Energy Conservation Corps, Scratch Girls: Designing games to learn about climate change, and The Climate Lab.
Brian Drayton Bio: Brian Drayton is Co-Director of the Center for School Reform, and co-leader of TERC's Life Sciences Initiative. Over the past 25 years, Drayton has conducted research on science pedagogy, helped create and research electronic communities for science education, and developed curriculum materials for middle and high school. TERC curricula related to climate change include the Global Lab; Ecology: a systems approach, Biocomplexity for a habitable planet, and The Climate Lab.
An audio recording of this teleconference call is posted here (MP3 Audio 17.2MB Mar3 15).
February 24, 2015: David Brooks, Institute for Earth Science Research and Education (INSTESRE)
Title: Developing a Project-Based STE(A)M Program Around Environmental/Climate Science
Abstract: A successful STE(A)M program should integrate all components of the STEM paradigm plus, increasingly, an arts component. It should provide access points for a wide range of student interests and capabilities. It should involve a process which works across disciplines. It should promote schools as centers for education and student research. It may produce student outcomes which are not easily measurable by traditional subject-specitic testing.
Pyranometry is one example of a project-based approach to STEM education, focusing on a central theme of climate science. Students can build their own instruments, which will produce scientifically valid and interesting data to support student research for many years. The nature of the measurement encourages a development of a long-term institutional commitment to supporting student research.
David Brooks Bio:
David Brooks holds BS and MS degrees in physics and a PhD in atmospheric physics from Imperial College, University of London. He is a former researcher at NASA's Langley Research Center and Research Professor at Drexel University. He is a former PI for atmospheric science in the GLOBE Program. He founded the Institute for Earth Science Research and Education (IESRE) in 2004. He was PD for IESRE's NASA-funded Climate Science Research for Educators and Students project, completed in 2014, and is currently PD for one of 23 national environmental education grants awarded in 2014 by the Toyota USA Foundation.
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 20.1MB Feb24 15).
February 17, 2015: Informal discussion
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 5.7MB Feb17 15).
February 10, 2015: Don Duggan-Haas, Director of Teacher Programming for The Paleontological Research Institution and its Museum of the Earth & Cayuga Nature Center
Title: Hydrofracking, Climate Change, and Evolution Outreach Yields Rules of Thumb for Teaching about Controversial Issues
The Paleontological Research Institution has a long history of nurturing public understanding of controversial issues. PRI's 11-year-old Museum of the Earth is built around the idea of evolution, and evolution education stretches back long before that. For more than a decade, PRI has engaged in climate change education, and, for the last several years, we have been engaged in energy education rooted in the science related to slickwater high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). These issues share common characteristics, and common rules of thumb are derived from our extensive work on teaching controversial issues. There are, however, differences amongst these issues and amongst the approaches that should be used in building understandings that can yield informed decisions.
Controversial issues tend to be interdisciplinary in nature; complex; play out across multiple scales of time and/or space; and are made difficult to understand by cognitive biases. Climate change and evolution share the characteristic of grounding in areas of consensus science. While there is consensus that HVHF causes environmental harm there is no consensus as to whether the environmental costs associated with HVHF are lesser or greater than those associated with other ways of generating energy on the scale currently required by modern society.
Rules of thumb for teaching about controversial issues include recognizing that: while grounding in evidence is essential, a focus simply upon the related science is insufficient to build understanding; effective approaches for certain audiences may backfire to the point of deepening misconceptions and related convictions if used with other audiences; reframing questions away from the most obvious and most polarizing questions is often helpful; argument in the traditional sense (and potentially advocacy in the traditional sense) may deepen convictions more than understandings; and; attending to issues of scale with familiar examples and user-friendly analogies can deepen understanding.
Don Duggan-Haas is the Director of Teacher Programs at The Paleontological Research Institution and its Museum of the Earth in Ithaca, NY. Don has taught at Colgate, Cornell, and Michigan State Universities, Kalamazoo College, and Tapestry and Norwich (New York) High Schools. His current work focuses on teacher professional development and curriculum materials development that fosters understanding of the central ideas of Earth systems science by engaging students and teachers in the close study of their local environments, and using those local understandings to grok larger natural systems and human roles within those systems. Or, that's the aspiration at least.
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 18.8MB Feb13 15).
February 3, 2015: Informal discussion
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 16.7MB Feb13 15).
January 27, 2015: Informal discussion about communicating climate change to young audiences
January 20, 2015: Informal discussion - Preparation for Energy and Climate Conference - National Council for Science and the Environment.
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 14.3MB Jan20 15).
January 13, 2015: Informal discussion
There is an audio recording of this teleconference call here (MP3 Audio 9.4MB Jan13 15).
January 6, 2015: Informal discussion - no recording made
2009 and 2008 Teleconferences
If anyone has material from the 2009 and 2008 teleconference calls, please contact Tamara Ledley. We would like to preserve our historic record. Thanks.