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The Little Ice Age: Understanding Climate and Climate Change
http://eo.ucar.edu/educators/ClimateDiscovery/LIA_lesson9_9.28.05.pdf

Lisa Gardiner, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

This is a classroom activity about the forcing mechanisms for the most recent cold period: the Little Ice Age (1350-1850). Students receive data about tree ring records, solar activity, and volcanic eruptions during this time period. By comparing and contrasting time intervals when tree growth was at a minimum, solar activity was low, and major volcanic eruptions occurred, they draw conclusions about possible natural causes of climate change and identify factors that may indicate climate change.

Activity takes about one 45-minute class period.

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Climate Literacy
About Teaching Climate Literacy

Sunlight reaching the Earth can heat the land, ocean, and atmosphere. Some of that sunlight is reflected back to space by the surface, clouds, or ice. Much of the sunlight that reaches Earth is absorbed and warms the planet.
About Teaching Principle 1
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Airborne particulates, called "aerosols," have a complex effect on Earth’s energy balance: they can cause both cooling, by reflecting incoming sunlight back out to space, and warming, by absorbing and releasing heat energy in the atmosphere. Small solid and liquid particles can be lofted into the atmosphere through a variety of natural and man-made processes, including volcanic eruptions, sea spray, forest fires, and emissions generated through human activities.
About Teaching Principle 2
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Scientific observations indicate that global climate has changed in the past, is changing now, and will change in the future. The magnitude and direction of this change is not the same at all locations on Earth.
About Teaching Principle 4
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Based on evidence from tree rings, other natural records, and scientific observations made around the world, Earth’s average temperature is now warmer than it has been for at least the past 1,300 years. Average temperatures have increased markedly in the past 50 years, especially in the North Polar Region.
About Teaching Principle 4
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Environmental observations are the foundation for understanding the climate system. From the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun, instruments on weather stations, buoys, satellites, and other platforms collect climate data. To learn about past climates, scientists use natural records, such as tree rings, ice cores, and sedimentary layers. Historical observations, such as native knowledge and personal journals, also document past climate change.
About Teaching Principle 5
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Excellence in Environmental Education Guidelines

2. Knowledge of Environmental Processes and Systems:2.1 The Earth as a Physical System:A) Processes that shape the Earth
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A) Processes that shape the Earth.
2. Knowledge of Environmental Processes and Systems:2.1 The Earth as a Physical System:C) Energy
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C) Energy.

Benchmarks for Science Literacy
Learn more about the Benchmarks

Scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant data, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected data.
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The earth's climates have changed in the past, are currently changing, and are expected to change in the future, primarily due to changes in the amount of light reaching places on the earth and the composition of the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels in the last century has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which has contributed to Earth's warming.
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Light and other electromagnetic waves can warm objects. How much an object's temperature increases depends on how intense the light striking its surface is, how long the light shines on the object, and how much of the light is absorbed.
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Notes From Our Reviewers The CLEAN collection is hand-picked and rigorously reviewed for scientific accuracy and classroom effectiveness. Read what our review team had to say about this resource below or learn more about how CLEAN reviews teaching materials
Teaching Tips | Science | Pedagogy | Technical Details

Teaching Tips

  • Improving the assessment: Discussion is okay, but the student understanding of the key concepts of this activity should also be measured using a questionnaire or by letting them interpret other data sets that they have not yet seen.
  • The science background provided in the "Teachers Guide" could be used for students. If this is done, it would be important to have guiding questions to accompany the reading.
  • The Solar Activity graph is missing a units label on the left hand axis. Students need to be told that the data is in Watts per meter squared (W/m2)
  • Educators may want to note to students that the "tree growth" data is derived from measurements of tree rings.
  • It should be pointed out to students that the variations in tree growth is an indicator of climate change while the volcanic activity and sunspot activity are causes of climate change.

About the Science

  • Comparison of different forcing mechanisms (sunspots, volcanoes) with one indicator for climate variability (tree growth) will foster the student understanding of complex interactions in climate system.
  • References are missing for some of the data.
  • Some of the graphs are missing labels to say what the units being measured are. This is particularly a problem because the graphs contain two y-axes.
  • Great scientific approach to have students synthesize information from three different data sources to draw conclusions about climate change.
  • Comment from scientist: If the volcanic ash stays in the troposphere, precipitation "washes it out" and its effect on climate is negligible. Only volcanic material that reaches the stratosphere will make a difference in the albedo of the atmosphere and have an effect on the climate.

About the Pedagogy

  • Well designed activity with good guidance for educator
  • The "Teacher's Guide" is well written and provides good introductory background information for educators. However, educators probably need more in-depth information to handle various questions students may have. If the guide is not used, educators need to make sure that their students acquire this understanding in some other way.
  • Activity is a worksheet activity where students interpret data from graphs.

Technical Details/Ease of Use

  • Very complete and directions are clear.

Related URLs These related sites were noted by our reviewers but have not been reviewed by CLEAN

This activity is part of a larger collection. The parent pages to this activity can be found under http://eo.ucar.edu/educators/ClimateDiscovery.

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